The Gifted Mind

Frobel Gifts – Enhancing Children’s IQ


Frobel gifts is an excellent medium used to enhance children’s awareness of geometry in the areas of share size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. The CPA approach helps children learn new ideas and build on their existing knowledge by introducing abstract concepts in a more familiar and tangible way. The approach is so established in Singapore math teaching, that the Ministry of Education will not approve any teaching materials which do not use the CPA approach.


Concrete Pictorial Abstract (CPA) is a three-step instructional approach that has been found to be highly effective in teaching math concepts. The Concrete stage is known as the “doing” stage and involves physically manipulating objects to solve a math problem. For example, when learning about a square, the teacher will get the child to hold, touch and feel a square puzzle found in Frobel Gift.


The Pictorial stage is the “seeing” stage and involves using images to represent objects to solve a math problem. The final step in this approach is called the abstract stage. For example, the child will look at a picture of a square and use sticks to form the outline of a square.


The Abstract stage is known as the “symbolic” stage and involves using only numbers and symbols to solve a math problem. CPA is a gradual systematic approach. Each stage builds on to the previous stage and therefore must be taught in sequence. For example, when a child is asked how many sides does a cube have.